The physical area claimed by China as Hainan Province includes over 200 islands across the South China Sea.
The Penghu archipelago comprises of around 100 islands – a third of which are submerged at high-tide.
The Cape Verde islands are thought to have formed over a volcanic “hot spot”, producing a series of volcanoes isolated from a plate boundary.
Volcanic eruptions eight million years ago off China’s coast created the Penghu Islands.
The Timor Sea is home to some of the most remote and least-explored reefs in the world: the Scott and Seringapatam Reefs.
New Caledonia does not have volcanic origins: the island is actually a chunk of continent that has drifted into the Pacific over millions of years.